The biophysical qualities of the Meullín-Puye Nature Sanctuary (SNMP) position it as a natural laboratory. The Cuervo River basin, where the Sanctuary is located, is hydrologically isolated. This generates an approachable study area with defined limits. Anthropic impact is almost nonexistent in these systems. For example, invasive species that are ubiquitous in the rest of the region inland water systems, such as salmonids and Didymo (Didymosphenia geminata), are notably absent.
One of the ecological systems located in the area are peatbogs, a kind of wetland of glacial origin formed by a series of layers of vegetation that produce and accumulate organic matter at various stages of decomposition, forming peat. Peatbogs are fertile ground for the growth of bushes, mosses, and plants that are capable of retaining humidity and that have adapted to conditions where there is excess water, low nutrient levels, low oxygen levels, and acidic environments.